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The electromagnetic spectrum pertains to the entire range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. It includes gamma rays, X-rays, UV, visible light, infrared, microwaves, and radio waves.
Infrared, in particular, is a form of electromagnetic radiation. The rays have wavelengths ranging between 770 nm and 1000 nm, and frequencies ranging from 430 THz to 300 GHz. The emission of infrared rays are particularly referred to as infrared radiation. It was discovered by William Herschel, an astronomer when he discovered an invisible radiation in year 1800.
Infrared is applied in various fields, for instance in medical, scientific, and industrial fields. In medicine, it is used in thermal imaging cameras that are used in monitoring heat loss in insulated systems, skin blood flow, and so on. In other uses, infrared is used in sensor-equipped telescopes and in night-vision devices.
The infrared spectrum may be divided into near infrared (or short-wave, i.e. about 0.75 to 3.0 μm) and far infrared (or long-wave, i.e. about 3.0–1000 μm).